Infusing the teaching of critical and creative thinking into elementary instruction

In addition they could, and most probably, would use their own experiences to describe and interpret the situation presented in the picture. This gives them the chance to relate the discussion to the real situations that they might have encountered. Question 3 involves both the creative and critical thinking skills, as the learners would have to present their opinions whether the situation presented reflects cleanliness or not, and why it does or does not reflect cleanliness.

As for Question 4, learners need to use their criticalthinking abilities. It probes the learners' abilities to find a solution on how cleanliness could be achieved. Besides the above, decision making processes could also be used to sow the seeds of creative and critical thinking into language learners See Sample Activity B: Decision-Making.

First of all, the teacher needs to identify common but real situations or problems to be discussed by the learners. Then the three steps of decision-making strategies are used Mirman and Tishman, : Find creative options to the situations or problems List reasons for and against the most promising options, and Make a careful choice out of list of reasons In the Sample Activity B, questions 1 and 2 need creative thinking; questions 3 and 4 require both creative and critical thinking. Questions 5 and 6 need critical thinking abilities in order to pass the verdict and the sentence. The learners, who act as the judges, analyze the evidence provided, rationalize the reasons, and weigh their judgments.

These kinds of activities are the avenues for learners to voice their opinions, thoughts, beliefs and views, and more primarily, to strengthen their creative and critical thinking in relations to the real problems that are so often found in the real world. Conclusion The fundamental issue, which most teachers tend to ignore, is the capabilities of their learners.

If teachers continue to disregard learners' views and opinions, or suppress them without ever giving the learners the chance to express themselves, then the learners would not be able to train and use their thinking skills.

Chapter 45. Infusing Critical and Creative Thinking into Content Instruction

Teachers should facilitate and encourage creative and critical thinking skills by viewing their learners differently from what they had presumed. They also need to change their pedagogical views and adopt a more flexible attitude towards their teaching and not be too concentrated and dependent on textbooks and their schools' aspirations, which are usually exam-oriented.

What is more important is the aspirations of the learners and how teachers could exploit the potentials of their learners. Also needed is the change of teachers' views of themselves.


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They are not providers but thinkers who constantly think of what could be done to encourage creative and critical thinking in their learners. References Boyce, M. Teaching Critically as an Act of Praxis and Resistance. HTM Bruss, N. Journal of Education. Costa, A. Teaching the Language of Thinking. Educational Leadership.

Background

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Infusing Teaching Thinking Into Subject-Area Instruction - The Critical Thinking Co.™

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Free Online Playroom Try our brain-building games for free. Bromley, K. New York: Scholastic Professional Books. Graphic organizers: Visual strategies for active learning. New York: Scholastic, Inc. Webbing with literature: Creating story maps with children's books. Buzan, T. The mind map book: How to use radiant thinking to maximize your brain's untapped potential. Use both sides of your brain: New techniques to help you read efficiently, study effectively, solve problems, remember more, think clearly. New York: E. Caine, R. Education on the edge of possibility.

Citation Tools

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Green, P. Graphic organizer collection. Palatine, IL: Novel Units. Harnadek, A. Hyerle, D. Visual tools for constructing knowledge. Jacobson, J. Johnson, N.